What is TB-500? A Comprehensive A-Z Guide

This article on TB-500 peptide therapy has been meticulously curated by the dedicated research team at Oxygenpharm Canada—one of the premier suppliers of all matters related to peptides, anabolic steroids, SARMs, and beyond. If you’re delving into the intriguing world of TB-500, look no further. This guide serves as your compass, catering to both neophytes in peptide therapeutics and seasoned researchers, equipping you with invaluable insights for your journey.

In this article, we delve deep into the latest studies, deciphering the manifold benefits that TB-500 offers. We meticulously dissect the pros and cons of TB-500, shedding light on both its merits and potential side effects. We also recommended a reliable supplier of TB-500 in Canada.

Our commitment to holistic comprehension empowers you with a comprehensive understanding, enabling informed decisions as you pave the path of your research journey. Whether you’re intrigued by tissue repair, enhanced healing, or regenerative potential, our evidence-backed exploration unveils the immense possibilities that lie within TB-500.

What is TB-500?


TB-500, a synthetic analog of thymosin-beta-4 (TB4), emerges as a significant player in regenerative medicine. With its roots in the natural regenerative peptide found in both animal and human cells, TB-500 holds promise for a variety of therapeutic applications [1].

The foundational peptide, TB4, is composed of 43 amino acids and exerts a pivotal role in the intricate process of wound healing. Its influence on cellular migration and facilitation of vascular growth is pivotal, especially in the context of injury. Following trauma, platelets and macrophages release TB4 to reduce inflammation, minimize cellular damage, and mitigate infection risk [1, 2].

Retaining the essential biological attributes of TB4, TB-500 has garnered attention for its range of therapeutic effects established in clinical studies. This synthetic analog demonstrates the ability to enhance healing across diverse tissue types and even extends its reach to anti-aging and cardiovascular advantages. The potential of TB4, alongside its counterpart TB-500, is under rigorous investigation for the treatment of various cardiometabolic and inflammatory ailments such as myocardial infarction, ulcerative colitis, corneal inflammation, and renal fibrosis [2].

Research and Development: The Timeline of Discovery and Research

The journey of thymosin beta-4 began in 1981 when it was initially identified in bovine thymus tissue. Originally examined for its immunomodulatory potential as a solution for immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders, research swiftly broadened to uncover its multifaceted properties [3].

In the realm of veterinary medicine, TB-500 has achieved prominence, albeit with certain restrictions. Its utilization as a performance-enhancing agent in horse racing is prohibited. Furthermore, both TB4 and TB-500 have been placed on the list of banned substances for athletic use in humans by the World Anti-Doping Association (WADA) and its affiliated national regulatory bodies [1, 4].

Despite these restrictions, the exploration of TB-500 and TB4 for their therapeutic prospects remains an active area of investigation. Encouragingly, these compounds have displayed promising safety profiles in experiments involving both animals and humans. Recent advancements have yielded novel derivatives that seek to enhance bioavailability and precision in delivering therapeutic effects, as will be elaborated upon subsequently [5].

The Functional Roles of TB-500: What Does TB-500 Do?

While TB4 has garnered a more extensive research focus, TB-500 is regarded by researchers and clinicians as functionally equivalent. Consequently, the therapeutic inquiries undertaken for TB4 hold potential applicability to TB-500 as well [1].

Noteworthy for its multi-faceted attributes, TB4 exhibits anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and protective effects throughout the body. Its capacity to upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and actin serve to stimulate both angiogenesis and cellular migration, pivotal processes in the intricate fabric of healing. This characteristic renders TB4 particularly captivating to clinical practitioners, offering the potential to mend cardiac and nervous tissues post-ischemic events [2, 6].

Moreover, TB4 proficiently governs cytokine levels, orchestrating a significant reduction in oxidative stress, while concurrently tempering fibrosis to enhance the healing trajectory. Beyond its capacity for repair, TB4’s anti-inflammatory prowess positions it as a contender for treating hepatic, renal, and cardiac injuries, along with inflammatory bowel disease. In this manner, the synergistic actions of TB4 and TB-500 might contribute to the overall preservation of cardiovascular and connective tissues, transcending the boundaries of injury-focused restitution [6].

Routes of Administering TB-500

Exploration of TB-500 and TB4 in both human and animal models has traversed diverse avenues of administration. Principal routes encompass parenteral, oral, nasal, and topical approaches. Among injectable methods, subcutaneous and intramuscular routes stand as favoured choices. Insight garnered from investigations into optimal dosages and administration protocols underscores the dynamic nature of these variables, contingent upon the specific clinical target under consideration [7].

What Are TB-500 Advantages? Insights from Clinical Research and Trials.


The existing body of knowledge pertaining to TB-500 primarily stems from investigations conducted in animal models, albeit a limited number of clinical trials involving TB4 have also been undertaken.

While a comprehensive exploration of TB-500’s applications in human subjects remains a priority, available findings underscore a plethora of therapeutic merits, with particular emphasis on the following:

  • Enhanced Wound Healing

TB4 orchestrates the augmentation of wound healing through an array of physiological mechanisms. Notably, it facilitates the migration of epithelial and stem cells, while concurrently suppressing apoptosis across various tissue types. These effects are discernible in muscle, skin, cardiac, corneal, and nerve cells. A pivotal focus has been on its potential as a treatment for dermal wounds. Clinical trials involving both adult and pediatric subjects showcased that topical administration of TB4 expedited wound healing in venous ulcers and chronic cutaneous lesions without compromising safety. Additionally, findings suggested that TB4 plays a role in restructuring collagen fibres, contributing to scar reduction and bolstering connective tissues [2, 6, 8].

  • Stimulation of Angiogenesis

Evidence highlights TB4’s proficiency in stimulating angiogenesis – the formation of new blood capillaries. In rat models, TB4 has been found to elevate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prompting endothelial differentiation and amplifying capillary density in ischemic tissues. This augments the healing process, facilitates recovery from disease, and elevates cardiovascular well-being [2].

  • Anti-Inflammatory Attributes

TB4’s anti-inflammatory prowess resonates across diverse organs such as the liver, kidneys, eyes, heart, and brain. This attribute stems from its regulation of inflammatory genes and cytokine levels. In instances of neuroinflammatory disease, TB4 showcased a significant reduction of inflammatory cells within the brain in rodent models. Another animal study illuminated TB4’s capability to diminish inflammatory factors in neonates afflicted by fetal alcohol disorder. This multifaceted anti-inflammatory potency positions TB4 as a potential contender for treating conditions like renal and liver fibrosis, alongside ulcerative colitis [6].

  • Neurological Resilience

Emerging research delineates prominent neurological advantages attributed to TB4. Insights gleaned from animal studies underscore TB4’s neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in the aftermath of traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. These attributes, coupled with its promotion of neurovascular recovery, spotlight TB4’s potential application in the treatment of neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and diabetic myopathy [2, 9].

While these represent key revelations regarding the therapeutic potential of TB-500 and its counterpart TB4, this account is by no means exhaustive. Further explorations delve into areas like enhanced hair growth and metabolic disorder management. Moreover, the regenerative impact of TB-500 and TB4 across multiple organ systems suggests the possibility of global anti-aging effects [2, 10].

Exploring TB-500 Dosage: A Comprehensive Examination

The dosing regimen for TB-500 (Thymosin Beta-4) is a crucial consideration in any research or clinical application. Although formal human trials are limited and further investigation is warranted, available data and insights from animal models provide valuable guidance for establishing dosage parameters. It’s important to note that individual responses to TB-500 may vary, and careful attention to dosing guidelines is essential to ensure safety and maximize potential benefits.

As regulatory approval for human use of TB-500 remains pending, established dosage guidelines are yet to be formalized. Nevertheless, research findings furnish valuable insights into the prudent and efficacious administration of TB-500, as outlined below, however, there is a need to outline the general principle of dosage first [4]:

General Principles of Dosage

Dosages are often expressed in milligrams (mg), and TB-500 is typically available in vials containing a specific quantity of the peptide (e.g., 5mg, 2mg, etc.). Dosages can vary based on the specific objectives, persons, and the condition being studied.

  • Initiation and Loading Phase

The initial phase of TB-500 usage often involves a loading phase, during which a higher dose is administered to quickly saturate the body’s tissues with the peptide. For instance, a common approach for TB-500 loading involves a dosage of 4-8mg per week, divided into smaller daily injections, over a period of 4-6 weeks.

This loading phase aims to establish a robust baseline of TB-500 in the system, potentially jumpstarting the desired regenerative and healing processes.

  • Maintenance Phase

After the loading phase, a maintenance dosage is typically recommended to sustain the effects achieved during the loading phase. Maintenance dosages are often lower than loading dosages and may range from 2-6mg per week, divided into smaller injections.

Injection Frequency and Timing

TB-500 injections are commonly administered subcutaneously (under the skin) or intramuscularly (into the muscle). The frequency of injections can vary, with daily injections during the loading phase and less frequent injections during the maintenance phase. The timing of injections should ideally be consistent, aiming for the same time each day.

Monitoring and Adjustment

Close monitoring of subjects or patients is crucial to assess the response to the chosen dosage regimen. Adjustments to dosages may be necessary based on observed effects, potential side effects, and the desired outcomes.

Exemplary TB-500 Dosing Plan


Drawing from available insights, the following may be considered a good TB-500 dosing protocol for the purpose of injury recovery and healing:

  • TB-500 Dosage: 2mg of TB-500, administered once daily via subcutaneous injection
  • Duration of Protocol: 15 days
  • Additional Notes: This protocol necessitates three 10mg vials of TB-500 for a single research subject throughout the 15-day regimen. Following this, a reduced maintenance dosage of 1mg daily may be sustained until full or substantial recovery is achieved.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, we advise you to consult with experts in the field before embarking on any TB-500 dosage regimen. Collaborating with experienced professionals can provide valuable insights, guidance, and oversight to optimize the research or therapeutic application.

In addition, it’s important to emphasize that while these dosage recommendations provide a framework, the evolving nature of scientific research necessitates ongoing exploration and adjustment. As further studies and clinical trials illuminate the effects of TB-500 in humans, more precise and tailored dosing guidelines may emerge. Ultimately, responsible and evidence-based dosing practices are essential to unlocking the full potential of TB-500 in regenerative medicine and beyond.

What Are The Safety and Adverse Effects of TB-500?

A formal evaluation of the safety of TB-500 and its counterpart TB4 in human subjects has not yet been undertaken. However, the available data suggest that, when administered properly, these compounds are generally well-tolerated and safe. Notably, documented adverse effects are infrequent, fleeting, and typically mild in nature. These include [4, 11]:

  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Blurry vision
  • Changes in heart rate
  • Bruising at the injection site

While the prevailing evidence leans towards a favourable safety profile, a cautious approach is advised when utilizing TB-500 due to the limited quantity of information concerning its short and long-term use in human subjects. In a broader context, it is worth noting that research peptides, in general, may be associated with minor side effects, including [12]:

  • Changes in blood pressure
  • Changes in appetite
  • Injection site discomfort

It is crucial to underscore that any adverse effects encountered typically dissipate on their own and are often linked to the utilization of lower-quality peptide products. These substandard products, often procured from unauthorized suppliers, may suffer from mislabeling or even contamination, thereby underscoring the importance of vigilance and meticulous sourcing practices.

Finding a Reliable Supplier: Where to Buy TB-500 in Canada?

When seeking a dependable supplier for TB-500, OxygenPharm Canada emerges as a credible choice, aligning seamlessly with the following benchmarks of credibility. Here’s a comprehensive evaluation of OxygenPharm Canada’s adherence to these standards:

  1. Research-Centric Focus: OxygenPharm Canada is committed to providing peptides exclusively for research purposes, emphasizing their dedication to maintaining the integrity of scientific investigations. This unwavering focus underscores their commitment to adhering to ethical research practices.
  2. Transparent Claims: The ethos of OxygenPharm Canada distinctly avoids making unsubstantiated medical guarantees or claims regarding the outcomes of peptide usage. Their commitment to scientific accuracy is evident in their clear differentiation between research tools and therapeutic agents.
  3. Third-Party Verification: OxygenPharm Canada ensures the quality and authenticity of their peptide products by providing valid certificates of analysis (CoAs) from esteemed third-party laboratories. This pivotal step assures consumers of the identity and purity of the peptides, enhancing the reliability of their offerings.

In accordance with these established criteria, OxygenPharm Canada instills confidence in the safety and legitimacy of their TB-500 products. Their dedication to ethical research, transparency, and third-party verification exemplifies their role as a trustworthy source for TB-500 procurement in the realm of online purchases. With OxygenPharm Canada’s commitment to adhering to the highest standards, researchers and scientists can confidently explore the therapeutic potential of TB-500 while upholding rigorous research practices.

Legality of TB-500: is TB-500 Legal?

Within the realms of qualified research and controlled laboratory environments, the lawful acquisition and manipulation of TB-500 for in vitro experimentation is permissible.

It’s noteworthy, however, that as of the present juncture, the Canadian Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) has not granted approval for any therapeutic utilization of TB-500. Consequently, researchers are advised to exercise prudence, recognizing that the promotion of TB-500 for human application or as a medicinal entity is considered unlawful. This underscores the importance of exercising caution when engaging with TB-500 suppliers who propagate such illicit activities.

Paralleling this, similar regulatory boundaries are established within Europe and the United Kingdom, overseen respectively by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

Comparing TB-500 Delivery Methods: Injectable, Nasal Spray, and Capsules

In this section of the blog, we will dissect the key considerations that influence the selection of the most suitable format.

  • Bioavailability

Historically, parenteral administration has been acclaimed for its superior bioavailability in peptide delivery, owing to the inherent instability and rapid degradation of many peptides. Notably, intramuscular and subcutaneous injections have garnered prominence in clinical investigations.

While injections are favoured for their swift onset and systemic impact, this conventional method might not invariably align with the optimal administration of TB-500. Evolving insights propose that the therapeutic advantages of TB4 might, in specific instances, be best harnessed through targeted delivery utilizing alternative routes [2, 20].

  • Orally Active Formulation

Recent developments within clinical practice have yielded an orally active iteration of TB-500, encompassing a truncated TB4 fragment that preserves its biological activity. Distinguished by its diminished size, this TB4-frag variant facilitates absorption within the gastrointestinal tract. Notably, it demonstrates targeted anti-fibrotic efficacy across diverse organs. Its encapsulated form renders it amenable to effortless oral administration [21].

  • Intrigues of Nasal Spray

As a notable frontier, nasally-delivered peptides warrant exploration. Intranasal administration emerges as an effective avenue for both systemic and precise nervous system targeting, boasting bioavailability comparable to injection. This route exploits a direct pathway from the nasal passage to the brain, thereby potentially proving optimal for central nervous system (CNS) targeting. Given TB-500’s documented potential in addressing neurological maladies and injuries, the intranasal route undoubtedly captivates interest [22].

Reconstituting TB-500:How to Reconstite TB-500

For those opting for the injectable administration route of TB-500, meticulous adherence to proper peptide reconstitution is paramount. Here, we offer an instructive breakdown of the process.

Importantly, injectable peptides often manifest as lyophilized powders that necessitate dissolution using a sterile solvent prior to injection. The customary choice for peptide reconstitution is bacteriostatic water.

Bacteriostatic Water

This solvent, comprising sterile water infused with benzyl alcohol, stands as a stalwart against contamination. The alcohol serves a dual role by preserving the solution and extending the shelf life of reconstituted peptides when stored correctly. Remarkably, bacteriostatic water adeptly engenders the dissolution of lyophilized peptides while preserving their unadulterated purity [23].

Essential Supplies:

To navigate the process of TB-500 reconstitution seamlessly, ensure the availability of these indispensable materials:

  • Vial of bacteriostatic water
  • Vial of lyophilized TB-500
  • Sterile syringe
  • Alcohol wipes
  • Additional sterile vials

Reconstitution Method

Proceed through the steps of TB-500 reconstitution with precision:

  1. Purify all involved elements using an alcohol wipe to mitigate any potential contamination risks.
  2. Utilizing a sterile syringe, cautiously extract the requisite volume of bacteriostatic water.
  3. Gradually introduce the bacteriostatic water into the vial containing the peptide powder, allowing for gradual dissolution.
  4. Refrain from stirring or shaking. When accessible, sonication may be employed. A state of clarity signifies readiness.
  5. In cases where the powder does not fully dissolve, a more potent solvent might be essential.
  6. For safe and extended use, refrigerate surplus solutions for up to 28 days post-reconstitution.
  7. Precise directives regarding storage and dosages may diverge. Exercise due diligence by perusing all product literature.

For your convenience, supplies encompassing bacteriostatic water, alongside other requisites for the TB-500 injection process, can be sourced from BacteriostaticWater.org. In undertaking the methodical reconstitution of TB-500, researchers and clinicians manifest their dedication to ensuring optimal safety and efficacy in their investigational pursuits.

TB-500 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Here are a few more frequently asked questions that could provide valuable information about TB-500:

  • Can TB-500 Treat Specific Medical Conditions?

TB-500’s potential therapeutic applications extend to wound healing, tissue repair, and other regenerative processes. While promising, its efficacy in treating specific medical conditions requires further investigation and clinical trials.

  • Is TB-500 Approved by Regulatory Agencies for Human Use?

As of now, TB-500 has not received approval from regulatory agencies such as the FDA for therapeutic use in humans. It is primarily utilized for research purposes and should not be marketed or used as a medical product.

  • What is the Recommended Storage for Reconstituted TB-500?

Reconstituted TB-500 solutions should be stored under refrigeration and used within a specified timeframe, typically up to 28 days after reconstitution. It’s essential to follow storage guidelines to maintain the stability and potency of the solution.

  • Can TB-500 be Used Alongside Other Therapies or Medications?

The potential interactions between TB-500 and other therapies or medications have not been comprehensively studied. Researchers and clinicians should exercise caution and consult with medical professionals before combining TB-500 with other treatments.

  • What Research is Being Conducted on TB-500?

Ongoing research explores the diverse therapeutic applications of TB-500, ranging from wound healing and tissue repair to potential treatments for neurological disorders. Staying informed about current research can provide insights into emerging applications and advancements.

  • Is TB-500 Legal for Veterinary Use?

TB-500 is commonly used in veterinary settings for its regenerative properties. However, regulations may vary by jurisdiction. Veterinarians and researchers should adhere to legal guidelines and ethical considerations when using TB-500 in animals.

  • What Are the Potential Long-Term Effects of TB-500?

Given the limited human data available, the long-term effects of TB-500 use remain uncertain. Extended usage and potential effects on various organ systems require further investigation.

  • How Does TB-500 Compare to Other Peptides?

TB-500 shares some similarities with other regenerative peptides but has distinct mechanisms of action. Researchers often compare TB-500 to peptides like BPC-157, which also exhibit wound healing and tissue repair properties.

  • Can TB-500 Be Used for Cosmetic Purposes?

While TB-500’s primary applications are focused on healing and regenerative processes, some individuals have explored its potential for cosmetic purposes, such as improving skin health and hair growth. However, robust clinical evidence in this context is limited.

  • What Precautions Should be Taken When Handling TB-500?

Researchers and clinicians should follow proper safety protocols when handling and administering TB-500 to prevent contamination and ensure the well-being of both researchers and subjects.

  • How Do I Administer TB-500?

In research environments, the administration of TB-500 adheres to established dosage and administration protocols. Procuring TB-500 from legitimate sources equipped with valid Certificates of Analysis (CoAs) is imperative.

  • What Are The Modes of TB-500 Delivery?

TB-500 finds its most prevalent modes of delivery through intramuscular or subcutaneous injections, oral capsules, and nasal sprays. Notably, topical gels and creams are employed for wound healing purposes. A distinctive variation, TB4-frag, with its compact structure and facile absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, permits oral administration.

Choosing the most fitting delivery method for TB-500 significantly hinges upon the intended therapeutic objectives. The dynamic interplay of time and dosage underscores the importance of researchers referring to pertinent TB-500 studies to inform their experimental design.

  • What Are The Safety Considerations for TB-500?

TB-500, when handled correctly, boasts commendable tolerability and an absence of significant adverse effects in current investigations. However, a comprehensive evaluation of its safety for human use remains outstanding. Researchers must exhibit prudence in procuring TB-500 solely from reputable sources to mitigate contamination risks. Adherence to clinical guidelines is an indispensable imperative.

  • What is The Difference between TB-500 and Steroids?

TB-500 diverges from steroids; it is an engineered analogue of the naturally occurring peptide thymosin beta-4. Notably, TB-500 lacks an affinity for the androgen receptor and therefore stands apart from the category of steroids.

  • What is TB-500 and Testosterone Connection?

To date, no substantiated evidence suggests that TB-500 influences testosterone levels. While its promotion of specific growth factors may bear semblance to androgenic effects, TB-500 has not demonstrated a direct impact on testosterone levels.

  • What is TB-500’s Impact on Muscle Development?

TB-500 plays a pivotal role in facilitating muscle repair and growth, especially within the context of healing processes.

  • What is the relationship Between TB-500 and Weight Changes?

The impact of TB-500 on body weight is contingent upon various factors encompassing administration method, therapeutic context, and subject health, culminating in a diverse range of potential outcomes.

Remember, as the field of peptide research continues to evolve, new questions and considerations may arise. Staying informed through reputable sources and consulting with experts is essential for the responsible and effective use of TB-500.

Conclusion: Empowering Your Journey with Knowledge

In summary, TB-500 stands as a potent regenerative peptide that is currently at the forefront of advanced clinical exploration, promising an array of therapeutic advantages. These encompass amplified healing and rejuvenation across diverse tissue types within the body, alongside their potential applicability in addressing cardiovascular, inflammatory, and neurological conditions.

Remarkably, TB-500 distinguishes itself by being adaptable to various administration routes, each offering distinctive merits. Researchers are empowered to integrate TB-500 into their investigations through a premium assortment of formats thoughtfully provided by our highly recommended suppliers.

Finally, Oxygen Pharm ensures access to the finest available online TB-500 in injectable or capsule form. They are a foremost and reliable supplier of quality peptides and anabolic steroids in Canada.


  1.   Ho EN, Kwok WH, Lau MY, Wong AS, Wan TS, Lam KK, Schiff PJ, Stewart BD. Doping control analysis of TB-500, a synthetic version of an active region of thymosin β₄, in equine urine and plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2012 Nov 23;1265:57-69. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2012.09.043. Epub 2012 Sep 23. PMID: 23084823.
  2.   Xing, Y., Ye, Y., Zuo, H., & Li, Y. (2021). Progress on the Function and Application of Thymosin β4. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.767785
  3.   Low TL, Hu SK, Goldstein AL (1981) Complete amino acid sequence of bovine thymosin beta 4: a thymic hormone that induces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in thymocyte populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78: 1162–1166.
  4.   World Anti-Doping Agency. World Anti-Doping Code International Standard Prohibited List 2022. WADA website. January 1, 2022. Accessed Mar 2022. https://www.wada-ama.org/sites/default/files/resources/files/2022list_final_en.pdf 
  5.   Nitta K, Shi S, Nagai T, Kanasaki M, Kitada M, Srivastava SP, Haneda M, Kanasaki K, Koya D. Oral Administration of N-Acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline Ameliorates Kidney Disease in Both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Mice via a Therapeutic Regimen. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:9172157. doi: 10.1155/2016/9172157. Epub 2016 Mar 20. PMID: 27088094; PMCID: PMC4818806.
  6.   Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Sosne G, Kleinman HK. Thymosin β4: a multi-functional regenerative peptide. Basic properties and clinical applications. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 Jan;12(1):37-51. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2012.634793. Epub 2011 Nov 10. PMID: 22074294.
  7.   EP1908779B1 – thymosin beta 4 derivatives and use thereof [Internet]. Google Patents. Google; [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://patents.google.com/patent/EP1908779B1/en 
  8.   Ehrlich HP, Hazard SW 3rd. Thymosin beta4 enhances repair by organizing connective tissue and preventing the appearance of myofibroblasts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Apr;1194:118-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05483.x. PMID: 20536458. 
  9.   Michael Chopp & Zheng Gang Zhang (2015) Thymosin β4 as a restorative/regenerative therapy for neurological injury and neurodegenerative diseases, Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 15:sup1, 9-12, DOI: 10.1517/14712598.2015.1005596 
  10.   Maar K, Hetenyi R, Maar S, Faskerti G, Hanna D, Lippai B, Takatsy A, Bock-Marquette I. Utilizing Developmentally Essential Secreted Peptides Such as Thymosin Beta-4 to Remind the Adult Organs of Their Embryonic State-New Directions in Anti-Aging Regenerative Therapies. Cells. 2021 May 28;10(6):1343. doi: 10.3390/cells10061343. PMID: 34071596; PMCID: PMC8228050. 
  11.   Wang, X., Liu, L., Qi, L., Lei, C., Li, P., Wang, Y., Liu, C., Bai, H., Han, C., Sun, Y., & Liu, J. (2021). A first‐in‐human, randomized, double‐blind, single‐ and multiple‐dose, phase I study of recombinant human thymosin β4 in healthy Chinese volunteers. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 25(17), 8222-8228. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16693 
  12.   Brennan, R., Wells, J. G., & Van Hout, M. C. (2014). An unhealthy glow? A review of melanotan use and associated clinical outcomes. Performance Enhancement & Health, 3(2), 78–92. doi:10.1016/j.peh.2015.06.001
  13.   Notice of opportunity for hearing (Nooh) manookian, Edward 8/5/16 [Internet]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA; 2016 [cited 2022Sep23]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/electronic-reading-room/notice-opportunity-hearing-nooh-manookian-edward-8516
  1.   Richards, N., & Hudson, I. (2016). UK medicines regulation: Responding to current challenges. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 82(6), 1471-1476. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13077 
  2.   Shaer, D. A., Musaimi, O. A., & Albericio, F. (2022). 2021 FDA TIDES (Peptides and Oligonucleotides) Harvest. Pharmaceuticals, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020222
  3.   At 7.5% CAGR, global peptide synthesis market size & share to surpass US$ 845.68 million by 2028 | peptide synthesis industry [Internet]. Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg; 2023 [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.bloomberg.com/press-releases/2023-01-31/at-7-5-cagr-global-peptide-synthesis-market-size-share-to-surpass-us-845-68-million-by-2028-peptide-synthesis-industry?utm_source=website&utm_medium=share&utm_campaign=copy 
  4.   Eglovitch JS. FDA guidance spells out acceptance criteria for synthetic peptide andas [Internet]. Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society (RAPS). [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.raps.org/news-and-articles/news-articles/2021/5/fda-guidance-spells-out-acceptance-criteria-for-sy 
  5.   The Federal Register [Internet]. Federal Register: Request Access. [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/12/12/2018-26840/definition-of-the-term-biological-product 
  6.   The Federal Register [Internet]. Federal Register: Request Access. [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/05/14/2021-10179/evaluating-the-clinical-pharmacology-of-peptides-establishment-of-a-public-docket-request-for 
  7.   Huang Z, Song Y, Pang Z, Zhang B, Yang H, Shi H, Chen J, Gong H, Qian J, Ge J. Targeted delivery of thymosin beta 4 to the injured myocardium using CREKA-conjugated nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:3023-3036. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S131949
  1.   Wang W, Jia W, Zhang C. The Role of Tβ4-POP-Ac-SDKP Axis in Organ Fibrosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(21):13282. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113282 
  2.   Bose M, Farias Quipildor G, Ehrlich ME, Salton SR. Intranasal Peptide Therapeutics: A Promising Avenue for Overcoming the Challenges of Traditional CNS Drug Development. Cells. 2022; 11(22):3629. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11223629 
  3.   What is Bacteriostatic Water? [Internet]. Study.com | Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. 2022 [cited 2022Aug17]. Available from: https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-bacteriostatic-water-definition-uses.html

Leave a Comment

Item added to cart.
0 items - $0.00